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Check out our most frequently asked questions about learning differences, reading difficulties and dyslexia below. If you have any additional questions, don’t hesitate to get in touch via our contact form.

Neurodiversity is the idea that differences in human brains and minds are natural and should be recognized and respected. It recognizes that people may have different ways of thinking, learning, and processing information, and that these differences are a normal and essential part of human diversity.

It means that conditions like autism, ADHD, dyslexia, and other neurological differences are not disorders or diseases, but rather variations of human diversity. People who are neurodiverse have different ways of processing information, learning, and interacting with the world.

While some neurodiverse individuals may face challenges in certain areas, they also have unique strengths and abilities that should be valued and supported.  Neurodiversity also recognises that neurotypical individuals (those who have typical brain function and development) can benefit from the unique perspectives and skills of neurodivergent individuals.

Therefore, creating a more inclusive society that embraces neurodiversity benefits everyone. Overall, the concept of neurodiversity promotes acceptance and inclusivity for all individuals, regardless of their neurological differences.
Dyslexia is often referred to as a learning disorder that affects a person’s ability to read, write, and spell. It is caused by differences in brain structure and function, and the exact cause is not yet fully understood. However, researchers have identified several factors that may contribute to difficulties in processing information related to language in dyslexic individuals.

One key factor is phonological processing, which involves the ability to recognise and manipulate sounds in language. Dyslexic individuals often struggle with phonological processing, which can make it difficult to recognise and remember words, as well as to sound them out and spell them correctly. This can result in difficulties with decoding, fluency, and comprehension of written language.

Another factor is working memory, which is the ability to hold information in the mind for a short period of time in order to use it in a task. Dyslexic individuals often have weaker working memory skills, which can make it more challenging to process and remember information related to language
ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects children’s attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It is one of the most common childhood disorders, affecting around 8-10% of children globally.

ADHD can affect a child’s learning in various ways. Children with ADHD may struggle to focus and sustain attention, which can make it challenging for them to complete tasks and follow instructions. They may also struggle with organization and time management, leading to difficulties in keeping track of assignments, deadlines, and schedules.

Hyperactivity and impulsivity can also impact learning. Children with ADHD may find it challenging to sit still, which can interfere with their ability to listen to lessons, take notes, or participate in class discussions. They may also blurt out answers or interrupt others, which can disrupt the learning environment.

Additionally, children with ADHD may struggle with executive functioning skills, which are necessary for planning, problem-solving, and self-regulation. These skills are essential for academic success, and difficulties in these areas can make it challenging for children with ADHD to meet academic demands.

It’s essential to note that not all children with ADHD experience the same symptoms or have the same challenges in their learning. The severity and type of symptoms can vary, and some children may have strengths in certain areas, such as creativity or problem-solving, which can be leveraged to support their learning.

Dyslexia and ADHD are two separate conditions that can occur independently, but they can also co-occur in some cases. The comorbidity of dyslexia with ADHD is not uncommon, and research suggests that approximately 25-40% of children with dyslexia also have ADHD.

Dyslexia is a learning disorder that affects reading and language processing, making it difficult for individuals to read and comprehend written language. ADHD, on the other hand, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

The co-occurrence of dyslexia and ADHD can make learning more challenging for children, as both conditions can impact their ability to concentrate, organize information, and process language effectively. 

It’s important to note that every child is unique, and while the comorbidity of dyslexia with ADHD is not uncommon, not all children with dyslexia will have ADHD, and vice versa. A proper evaluation and diagnosis from a qualified healthcare professional is necessary to determine if a child has either or both conditions.

Yes, dyslexia is known to have a genetic component, which means that it can run in families. Research has shown that children who have a parent or close relative with dyslexia are more likely to develop dyslexia themselves.

Studies have identified several genes that may be involved in the development of dyslexia, including genes that are involved in brain development and the processing of language. However, it is important to note that having a genetic predisposition to dyslexia does not necessarily mean that a person will develop dyslexia.

Environmental factors, such as exposure to language and reading instruction, can also play a role in the development of dyslexia. If someone in your family has dyslexia, it is a good idea to be aware of the signs and symptoms of dyslexia and to seek evaluation and support if you or your child are experiencing difficulties with reading or language processing.

Early identification and intervention can be very helpful in managing dyslexia and minimising its impact on learning and daily life.
Dyslexia can be detected as early as preschool or kindergarten, although it may not be formally diagnosed until a child is older. Some signs of dyslexia in young children include difficulty with letter recognition, difficulty with rhyming and phonemic awareness, difficulty with reading or spelling simple words, and trouble remembering the names of familiar objects.

It’s important to note that these signs don’t necessarily mean that a child has dyslexia, and it’s also possible for children with dyslexia to excel in other areas. If you’re concerned about your child’s reading or language skills, it’s a good idea to talk to their teacher or a healthcare professional who can evaluate their development and provide support if needed.

Early detection and intervention can be key in helping children with dyslexia succeed academically and socially.

There are many factors that can contribute to reading difficulties, including:

  1. Lack of exposure to reading: Children who have not been exposed to books and reading before starting school may find it difficult to read and comprehend text.
  2. Learning Difficulties: Dyslexia, which affects reading skills, is one example of a learning difference that can cause reading difficulties. Other learning differences, such as ADHD or autism, can also make it challenging for individuals to read.
  3. Cognitive processing difficulties: Individuals who struggle with processing information may find it difficult to read and comprehend text.
  4. Visual or auditory processing difficulties: Visual or auditory processing difficulties can make it challenging to decode words, follow sentences, or understand the meaning of text.
  5. Lack of phonemic awareness: Phonemic awareness, or the ability to identify and manipulate individual sounds in words, is an essential skill for reading. Children who lack this skill may find it difficult to read.
  6. Limited vocabulary: A lack of exposure to new words or a limited vocabulary can make it challenging to understand the meaning of text.
  7. Environmental factors: Poor lighting, inadequate reading materials, or distractions in the environment can all contribute to reading difficulties.

It’s important to note that reading difficulties can also stem from a combination of these factors, and that each individual may experience reading difficulties for different reasons.

Reading difficulties in primary school aged child between grades 1-3  can manifest in a variety of ways. Here are some signs that may indicate a child is struggling with reading:

  1. Difficulty learning the alphabet: Children with dyslexia may have difficulty learning the letters of the alphabet and their sounds.

  2. Difficulty recognising letters and sounds: A child may have trouble identifying letters and their associated sounds, making it challenging to decode words.

  3. Struggling with sight words: Sight words are commonly used words that are difficult to sound out. A child who has difficulty recognising sight words may struggle with reading fluency.

  4. Difficulty with phonemic awareness: Phonemic awareness is the ability to identify and manipulate individual sounds within words. A child who struggles with phonemic awareness may have difficulty sounding out words and recognising rhyming patterns.

  5. Difficulty with decoding: Dyslexic children may struggle to sound out words and may make frequent errors when reading.

  6.  Slow reading speed: Dyslexic children may read slowly and have difficulty keeping up with their peers.

  7. Difficulty with comprehension: A child who has difficulty understanding what they are reading may have trouble with comprehension. They may struggle to answer questions about a text or summarise what they have read even if they are able to read the words accurately.

  8.  Avoiding reading: A child who is struggling with reading may express dislike for reading or avoid reading altogether. They may show disinterest in books and prefer other activities instead.

  9. Difficulty with spelling and writing: Reading and writing are closely linked skills. A child who struggles with reading may also have difficulty with writing and spelling.

It’s important to note that not all children with dyslexia will exhibit all of these signs, and some children without dyslexia may exhibit some of these signs as well.  However, if a child consistently shows several of the signs mentioned above, it may be a good idea to seek advice from a teacher or reading specialist to identify any potential reading difficulties and provide appropriate support.

Due to learning differences, dyslexic children may learn to read later than their peers and may struggle with reading, comprehension, spelling and writing skills. This can put them at a disadvantage in their stage of learning as they may have difficulty keeping up with their classmates and may require additional support and accomodations to succeed in school.

Delayed reading skills can have a significant impact on academic achievement. Reading is a fundamental skill that is necessary for success in most subjects, including science, math, social studies, and language arts.

If a student is unable to read at grade level, they may struggle to understand written information and instructions, assignments, and tests, which can negatively affect their academic performance.

If a student struggles with reading, they may have a limited vocabulary, which can make it difficult to understand complex concepts and communicate effectively.
Reading is a primary source of information in most academic subjects.

If a student struggles with reading, they may miss out on important information, which can impact their ability to participate in class discussions, complete assignments, and perform well on tests.

Reading is also important for developing spelling and grammar skills. If a student struggles with reading, they may also struggle with spelling and grammar, which can impact their ability to communicate effectively in writing.HTey

Early intervention is crucial for reading difficulties because reading is a fundamental skill that forms the foundation for academic success and life-long learning. Children who struggle with reading in the early grades are more likely to experience long-term academic and social problems, such as low self-esteem, anxiety, and behavioral issues.

Research has shown that the earlier reading difficulties are identified and addressed, the better the outcomes are for the child. Early intervention can prevent reading difficulties from becoming more severe and can even reverse the negative effects of reading difficulties. This is because young children’s brains are still developing, and they are more adaptable to learning new skills and strategies.

By providing support and intervention as early as possible, children can develop the skills and confidence they need to become proficient readers and succeed academically and in life.
Executive function refers to a set of cognitive processes that allow individuals to plan, organize, initiate, and execute tasks. These processes include working memory, cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, and attentional control.

Research has shown that individuals with dyslexia often experience difficulties with executive function. For example, they may have trouble with working memory, which can make it difficult to remember and manipulate information, such as remembering instructions or following a conversation.

They may also struggle with inhibitory control, making it hard to filter out distractions or resist impulses. Additionally, cognitive flexibility, which is the ability to switch between different tasks or perspectives, can be challenging for individuals with dyslexia.

These difficulties in executive function can impact academic performance, particularly in areas such as reading, writing, and math. For example, students with dyslexia may struggle to complete assignments on time, follow multi-step instructions, or organize their thoughts effectively.

These difficulties can also impact social interactions and daily life, as individuals with dyslexia may have trouble with time management, organization, and decision-making.

While the exact relationship between dyslexia and executive function is not fully understood, research suggests that there may be a genetic link between the two. Additionally, some experts believe that executive function difficulties may be a result of the underlying cognitive processing differences that contribute to dyslexia. However, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between these two areas.

Dyslexic thinking involves a strong ability to think in pictures and to see things in a different way than others. People with dyslexic thinking often have strong problem-solving skills and can come up with creative solutions to complex problems.

Here are some advantages of the dyslexic thinking:

  1. Creativity: Creativity is the ability to generate unique and original ideas or concepts. It involves thinking outside the box and being able to come up with solutions that may not be immediately obvious.
  2. Spatial reasoning: Spatial reasoning is the ability to visualise and manipulate objects in the mind. It is often associated with activities such as drawing, designing, and engineering.
  3. Big picture thinking: Big picture thinking is the ability to see the larger context of a situation and understand how various components fit together. It involves considering the long-term implications of decisions and actions.
  4. Problem solving: Problem solving is the ability to identify and analyse problems, and develop and implement effective solutions. It requires a combination of analytical and creative thinking skills.
  5. Critical thinking: Critical thinking is the ability to evaluate information objectively and make reasoned judgments based on evidence. It involves being able to analyse arguments and recognise logical fallacies.
  6. Strong intuition: Intuition is the ability to understand something instinctively, without the need for conscious reasoning. Strong intuition can be a valuable asset in decision-making and problem-solving.
  7. Resilience: Resilience is the ability to bounce back from setbacks and overcome obstacles. It involves having a positive mindset, being adaptable, and being able to cope with stress and adversity.
  8. Pattern detection: Pattern detection is the ability to recognise similarities or commonalities between different objects, ideas, or situations. It is often associated with fields such as mathematics, science, and computer programming.

Dyslexia can have a significant social and emotional impact on a child. Here are some ways dyslexia can affect a child’s social and emotional well-being:

  1. Low self-esteem: Children with dyslexia may struggle with reading, writing, and spelling, which can lead to feelings of inadequacy and low self-esteem. They may feel like they are not as smart as their peers and may feel embarrassed or ashamed about their struggles.
  2. Social isolation: Children with dyslexia may avoid social situations or activities that involve reading and writing, such as book clubs or writing groups. They may feel like they don’t fit in with their peers and may be hesitant to make friends.
  3. Anxiety and stress: Dyslexia can cause anxiety and stress in children, as they may worry about falling behind in school or being teased by classmates. They may also feel pressure to keep up with their peers and may feel overwhelmed by the amount of work they have to do.
  4. Behavioral issues: Children with dyslexia may act out or become disruptive in class as a way to cope with their struggles. They may also become withdrawn or quiet and avoid participating in class activities.
  5. Family stress: Dyslexia can also cause stress for parents and caregivers, as they may feel frustrated or helpless in supporting their child. This can lead to tension and conflicts within the family.

It is important to note that with the right support and accommodations, children with dyslexia can thrive academically, socially, and emotionally. Early intervention is key in helping children with dyslexia overcome these challenges and reach their full potential.THe 

Here are some of the ways in which a parent can provide emotional support to their dyslexic child:

  1. Accept and acknowledge: The first step towards supporting your dyslexic child is to accept and acknowledge dyslexia as a learning difference and not a reflection of intelligence or ability.
  2. Educate yourself: Learn about dyslexia and how learning difficulties may affects your child. Understanding the challenges your child faces can help you provide appropriate emotional support.
  3. Celebrate strengths: Dyslexia can sometimes make reading, writing, and spelling difficult, but it doesn’t mean your child lacks other strengths. Celebrate your child’s strengths and encourage their interests.
  4. Encourage self-advocacy: Encourage your child to speak up for themselves and their needs. Help them build self-confidence and resilience so they can advocate for themselves in the future.
  5. Provide accommodations: Dyslexic children may require accommodations such as extra time for exams, audiobooks, and assistive technology. Advocate for your child’s needs at school and provide accommodations at home as necessary.
  6. Seek professional help: Seek the help of professionals such as educators, psychologists, or speech therapists, who can provide additional support and guidance for your child.
  7. Provide emotional support: Dyslexia can be frustrating and demotivating for a child. Provide emotional support by listening to your child’s concerns, offering encouragement, and being patient with them.

Remember that every dyslexic child is different, and what works for one child may not work for another. With patience, understanding, and support, your child can thrive and succeed.

Learning difficulties associated with dyslexia can often lead to behavioural issues, as children may experience frustration, low self-esteem, stress and anxiety related to their difficulties with reading and writing. It’s important to note that not all behavioural issues are related to dyslexia, and not all individuals with dyslexia will experience behavioural problems.

A child with low self-esteem may act like an angry and defensive child as a way of protecting themselves from further perceived harm or rejection. When a child does not feel good about themselves, they may become hypersensitive to criticism, rejection, or failure, and may feel threatened even by minor setbacks or perceived slights. This can trigger feelings of anger, frustration, and defensiveness, which may be expressed through tantrums, outbursts, or other negative behaviours.

In addition, a child with low self-esteem may feel powerless and vulnerable, and may use anger and aggression as a way of exerting control over their environment or defending themselves against perceived threats. This can create a self-perpetuating cycle of negative behaviours, where the child’s anger and defensiveness further reinforces their negative self-image and reinforces their low self-esteem.

It’s important for caregivers and educators to understand the underlying causes of a child’s anger and defensiveness, and to provide support and guidance in developing healthy coping strategies and building a positive self-image. This may involve providing praise and positive reinforcement for achievements and efforts, setting realistic expectations, providing opportunities for success, and helping the child develop problem-solving skills and resilience in the face of setbacks.

Overall, the mental battle within a child with dyslexia is a complex one, involving a range of emotions and cognitive challenges. It is important for parents, teachers, and caregivers to provide support and understanding to help the child navigate this struggle and build their confidence and self-esteem. 

Self-regulation is a critical skill that is essential for children’s emotional and behavioural development. It involves the ability to manage one’s emotions, thoughts, and behaviours in response to different situations. Children who struggle with self-regulation may have difficulty controlling their impulses, managing their emotions, and adapting to changes in their environment.

Children with dyslexia often struggle with self-regulation, which can make it challenging for them to manage their emotions and behaviours effectively. This can lead to them feeling overwhelmed with big feelings, such as frustration, anger, or sadness. Difficulties with self-regulation can impact many areas of a child’s life, from their relationships with peers and family members to their ability to focus and learn in school.

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